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The C keyword 'struct' can be used in a Template to define a hierarchical data structure when parsing a file. Structures can be defined using C/C++ syntax. For example:

    struct myStruct {
        int a;
        int b;
        int c;

See Declaring Template Variables for information on declaring the variables within a struct. Structs can also be declared in Scripts but require the local keyword to be used. Note the semi-colon after the struct definition is required. This syntax would actually generate a new type myStruct, but would not declare any variables until an instance of type myStruct is declared:

    myStruct s;

After this declaration, the Template Results would have an entry 'myStruct s' with an arrow beside it. Clicking the arrow would open the struct and display the variables a, b, and c beneath.

Instances of structures can be declared at the same time the structure is defined. For example:

    struct myStruct {
        int a;
        int b;
        int c;
    } s1, s2;

would generate two instances of myStruct. s1 would cover the first 12 bytes of the file (4 bytes for each of the 3 integers) and s2 would cover the next 12 bytes of the file.

These structs are more powerful than typical C structs since they may contain control statements such as if, for, or while. For example:

    struct myIfStruct {
        int a;
        if( a > 5 )
            int b;
            int c;
    } s;

In this example, when s is declared only two variables are generated: a, and one of b or c. Remember that templates are executed as an interpreter would, evaluating each line before stepping to the next. The value of a is read directly from the current file.

Structures can be nested and array of structures can also be declared. For example:

    struct {
        int width;

        struct COLOR {
            uchar r, g, b;
        } colors[width];

    } line1;

Note that forward-declared structs are supported and structs can even be nested recursively. Typedefs can be used with structs as an alternate way to define a structure. For example:

    typedef struct {
        ushort id;
        int    size;


A union can be declared using the same syntax as structs except that the keyword 'union' is used instead of 'struct'. In a union, all the variables start at the same position and the size of the union is just large enough to contain the largest variable. For example, for the union:

    union myUnion {
        ushort s;
        double d;
        int    i;
    } u;

all three variables would be read starting from the same position and the size of the union would be 8 bytes to contain the double. Unions are not currently supported with the local keyword.

Structs with Arguments

A list of arguments can be specified after the 'struct' or 'union' keyword when defining a structure or union. This is a powerful way of working with complex structures and the argument list is defined in a similar manner to Functions. For example:

    struct VarSizeStruct (int arraySize)
        int id;
        int array[arraySize];

Then, when instances of this struct are declared the proper parameters must be passed to the struct in brackets. For example:

    VarSizeStruct s1(5);
    VarSizeStruct s2(7);

Arguments can also be used with structs or unions defined using typedefs. For example:

    typedef struct (int arraySize)
        int id;
        int array[arraySize];
    } VarSizeStruct;

Recursive Structs

Structs that contains member variables which are the same as itself are called recursive structs and can be declared in 010 Editor. In order for a recursive struct to be created, a forward declaration of the struct must exist before the struct declaration and a forward declaration is of the form 'struct <name>;'. A forward declaration allows a type to be used before it is fully defined. For example, the following code defines a recursive struct and the first line is a forward declaration:

    struct NODE;
    struct NODE {
        int data;
        int children;
        local int i; 
        for( i = 0; i < children; i++)
            NODE child;
    } root;

Local Structs

A local struct can be declared using the 'local' keyword before a struct definition or declaration. Local structs work just like structs in regular C and are not mapped to bytes within a file as Template variables are. When a local struct is created, all variables inside the struct are also created as local but any structs within the struct must also be created with the 'local' keyword. For example, local structs could be created by:

    local struct {
        int id;
        int size;
        local struct {
            int numfiles;
        } data;
    } direntry;


  struct EMPLOYEE {
      int id;
      string name; 
  local EMPLOYEE george;

Note that at this time local unions are not supported.

This is the manual for 010 Editor, a professional hex editor and text editor. Use 010 Editor to edit the individual bytes of any binary file, hard drive, or process on your machine. 010 Editor contains a whole host of powerful analysis and editing tools, plus Binary Templates technology that allows any binary format to be understood.

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